Directories of Outcomes

The research base on the impact of police body-worn cameras (BWCs) has grown rapidly, and over time, the results have become increasingly mixed. This development poses two problems: 

  1. It is difficult to keep track of the quickly growing evidence base. 
  2. It is difficult to make sense of the sometimes competing findings across studies. 

Moreover, studies can vary widely in terms of their methodological rigor. We have developed the Body-Worn Camera Outcome Directories to address these two problems. The Directories provide a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of the existing research by outcome (use of force, citizen complaints, officer activity). Importantly, each study’s entry has been approved by the primary researcher to ensure accuracy (when the primary researcher could not be reached, an independent reviewer was tasked with peer-reviewing the interpretation of the study’s findings). 

Each directory is presented in two formats: A summary version and a detailed version. Both versions contain, for each study, the agency being evaluated, the agency’s state or country, the researchers conducting the study (with a link to the study), the year in which the study was published, an assessment of the study’s methodological rigor using the Maryland Scientific Methods Scale, and summaries of the study’s findings using visual indicators (green down-arrow, red up-arrow, or yellow dot). The detailed version of the directories also includes the percent change for between- and within-group comparisons and study sample size. More detailed instructions for interpreting the directories are included in each document. 

Currently, directories for officer activity, use of force, citizen complaints, and officer perceptions are available below, though additional outcomes are forthcoming.  If you have any questions, please contact Dr. Michael White (, Dr. Janne Gaub (, Dr. Aili Malm ( or the BWC TTA Team (


Citizen Complaints
     Access the Directory
Use of Force
      Access the Directory
Officer Activity
       Access the Directory
officer perceptions
       Access the Directory


Citizen Perceptions
     Access the Directory