The Deterrence Spectrum: Explaining Why Police Body-Worn Cameras ‘Work’ or ‘Backfire’ in Aggressive Police–Public Encounters
Oxford University Press, 2017
Police body-worn cameras (BWCs) are an increasingly prominent research area in criminal justice. This trend mirrors current practice, with more and more law enforcement agencies implementing or procuring BWCs. Yet the evidence on BWCs is substantially long on evidence but rather short on theory. Why should BWCs ‘work’ and under what conditions or on whom? This article offers a more robust theoretical composition for the causal mechanisms that can explain the efficacy of BWCs. What sets them apart from other surveillance devices, such as closedcircuit televisions (CCTVs), speed cameras, or bystanders’ mobile cameras? This article introduces the deterrence spectrum, within which BWCs can de-escalate or exacerbate aggressive encounters. It argues that the deterrent effect of BWCs is a function of discretion, whereby strong discretion is inversely linked to a weak deterrent effect that consequently leads to more use of force, and weak discretion is inversely linked to a strong deterrent effect and less forceful police responses. The authors conclude by linking these findings to BWCs discretion policy, as well the willingness of the agency to adopt an evidence-based policing framework.
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